Specific gravity is a measure of the density of a substance relative to the density of water. It is used in a wide range of applications, from determining the concentration of a solution to measuring the weight of a solid object. The specific gravity of a substance is expressed as a ratio of the density of the substance to the density of water.

Specific gravity is an important parameter for many industries, including chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and engineering. It is used to determine the concentration of a solution, the amount of a solid material in a solution, and the weight of a solid object. It is also used to compare the densities of different substances.

The specific gravity of a substance is determined by measuring the density of the substance and the density of water. The density of water is 1.000 g/cm^{3}, so the specific gravity of a substance is simply the density of the substance divided by the density of water. For example, if the density of a substance is 1.500 g/cm^{3}, the specific gravity of the substance is 1.500/1.000 = 1.500.

The specific gravity of a substance is a useful tool for measuring the concentration of a solution. The concentration of a solution is expressed as the amount of solute (the substance being dissolved) per unit volume of the solution. The specific gravity of the solution can be used to calculate the concentration of the solution.

Specific gravity is also used to measure the weight of a solid object. The weight of an object is equal to its mass multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. The specific gravity of the object can be used to calculate the weight of the object.

Specific gravity is an important parameter in many industries, and it is used to measure the concentration of a solution, the amount of a solid material in a solution, and the weight of a solid object. By measuring the specific gravity of a substance, it is possible to gain valuable information about the substance.