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Period in chemistry is a row of elements in the periodic table. Elements in a period have similar properties because they have the same number of atomic orbitals. The atomic orbitals are the areas around the nucleus where electrons are located. Each period on the periodic table is made up of elements that have the same number of electron shells. The first period has two elements, hydrogen and helium, with one shell each. The second period has eight elements, with two shells each. The third period has 18 elements, with three shells each.
Atoms of elements in the same period have the same number of protons and electrons. However, they can have different numbers of neutrons. This means that elements in the same period can have different atomic masses. The atomic mass is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. This is why elements in the same period can have different physical and chemical properties.
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The elements in a period are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in its nucleus. The number of protons in the nucleus determines the chemical properties of an element. Elements with the same number of protons will have similar chemical properties. This is why elements in the same period have similar chemical properties.
The elements in a period are also arranged in order of increasing atomic radius. The atomic radius is the distance from the nucleus to the outermost electron shell. Elements in the same period have similar atomic radii because they have the same number of electron shells. The atomic radius increases from left to right across a period. This is because each element has one more electron shell than the element to its left.
Periods are a useful way to organize the elements in the periodic table. They help us to understand the similarities and differences between elements and to predict their properties. By understanding the properties of elements in a period, we can better understand the properties of other elements in the periodic table.